Jury Instructions

​​​​Jury Instructions 7th Edition - Full Manual

*These links open into word documents with editable instructions.​​

1.   Introduction and General Information


1.01                         The Jury’s Role and Jury Instructions

1.02                         W. Va. R. Crim. P. 30 and T.C.R. 42.02

1.03                         Keep it Simple


2.   Preliminary Instructions


2.01                ​Orienting the​ Jury

2.02                Defining Terms

2.03                The Indictment—Presumption of Innocence—Elements

2.04                The Order of Trial

2.05                Duty of the Jury—Duty of the Court—Evidence

2.06                Direct and Circumstantial Evidence 

2.07                Witness Credibility

2.08                Judge’s Questioning and Rulings

2.09                Sentencing Not Jury Concern—Exceptions

2.10                Non-Communication Instructions

2.11                Extraneous Information—Internet—Social Media

2.12                Juror Note Taking

2.13                Conclusion


3.   Evidentiary Instructions

4.   Jury Recesses

5.   Final Jury Charge


5.01                         Introduction to the Final Charge—Provinces of the Court and Jury

5.02                         Judging the Evidence

5.03                         Evidence Received in the Case, Stipulations, Judicial Notice, and Inferences

5.04                         Direct and Circumstantial Evidence

5.05                         Inferences

5.06                         Jury’s Recollection Controls

5.07                         Statements, Arguments, and Questions are Not Evidence

5.08                         Consider Only the Offense Charged

5.09                         Presumption of Innocence, Burden of Proof, and Reasonable Doubt

5.10                         Verdict as to Defendant Only

5.11                         Consider Each Count Separately in Multi-Defendant Trial

5.12                         Single Defendant—Multiple Counts

5.13                         Witness Credibility—Sole Judges

5.14                         Witness Credibility—Elements

5.15                         Testifying Defendant

5.16                         Non-Testifying Defendant

5.17                         Voluntariness of Defendant’s Statements

5.18                         Missing Witness Instruction

5.19                         Lost or Destroyed Evidence Rule (Adverse Inference Instruction)

5.20                         Eyewitness Identification Instruction

5.21                         Accomplice Instruction

6.   Instructions During Deliberations


7.   Substantive Offenses


7.1.      Crimes Against the Government

7.1.1                       Impersonating a law enforcement officer or law enforcement official.


7.2.      Crimes Against the Person


7.2.1.                     General Homicide Instruction

7.2.2.                     Not Guilty

7.2.3.                     Involuntary Manslaughter

7.2.4.                     Voluntary Manslaughter

7.2.5.                     Second Degree Murder

7.2.6.                     First Degree Murder (Premeditated)

7.2.7.                     Clifford Instruction

7.2.8.                     First Degree Murder (Lying in wait)

7.2.9.                     First Degree Murder (Poisoning)

7.2.10.                 First Degree Murder (Imprisonment)

7.2.11.                 First Degree Murder (Starvation)

7.2.12.                 General Instructions Regarding Mental State

7.2.13.                 Transferred Intent

7.2.14.                 Parole Eligibility Instruction (Unitary Trials)

7.2.15.                 Felony Murder

Assault & Battery

7.2.16.                 Malicious Assault (Including lesser offenses)          (Effective June 29, 2017)          (Pre-June 29, 2017)

7.2.17.                 Malicious Assault

7.2.18.                 Unlawful Assault (including lesser offenses)          (Effective June 29, 2017)          (Pre-June 29, 2017)

7.2.19.                 Unlawful Assault

7.2.20.                 Battery (including lesser included offenses)         (Effective June 29, 2017)        (Pre-June 29, 2017)

7.2.21.                 Battery          (Effective June 29, 2017)          (Pre-June 29, 2017)

7.2.22.                 Assault          (Effective June 29, 2017)         (Pre-June 29, 2017)

7.2.23.                 Stalking

7.2.24.                 Harassment

7.2.25.                 Malicious Assault of a Child Within 1,000 Feet of a School

7.2.26.                 Wanton Endangerment Involving the Use of Fire

7.2.27.                 Assault in the Commission of a Felony

7.2.28.                 Assault in the Attempt to Commit a Felony

7.2.29.                 Malicious Assault of a[n] [Government Representative] [Health Care Worker] [Emergency Service Personnel] [Utility Worker] [Law Enforcement Officer] [Correctional Employee] [Emergency Medical Service Personnel] (including lesser offenses)

7.2.30.                 Unlawful Assault of a[n] [Government Representative] [Health Care Worker] [Emergency Service Personnel] [Utility Worker] [Law Enforcement Officer] Correctional Employee] [Emergency Medical Service Personnel] (including lesser offenses)

7.2.31.                 Battery of a[n] [Government Representative] [Health Care Worker] [Emergency Service Personnel] [Utility Worker] [Law Enforcement Officer] [Correctional Employee] [Emergency Medical Service Personnel] (including lesser offenses)

7.2.32.                 Assault of a[n] [Government Representative] [Health Care Worker] [Emergency Service Personnel] [Utility Worker] [Law Enforcement Officer] [Correctional Employee] [Emergency Medical Service Personnel] (including lesser offenses)

7.2.33.                 Unlawful Shooting at Another in Street, Alley, or Public Resort


7.2.34.                 First Degree Robbery or Attempted First Degree Robbery

7.2.35.                 Second Degree Robbery or Attempted Second Degree Robbery

7.2.36.                 Bank Robbery

7.2.37.                 Aggravated Bank Robbery

7.2.38.                 Extortion or Attempted Extortion


7.2.39.                 Abduction (any person to marry or defile)

7.2.40.                 Abduction (child under 16 years of age for improper and immoral purpose)

7.2.41.                 Abduction (child under 16 years of age for purpose of prostitution or concubinage)

7.2.42.                 Kidnapping         Kidnapping (effective July 2, 2017)         Kidnapping (pre-July 2, 2017)

7.2.43.                 Kidnapping by a Family Member

7.2.44.                 Threats to Kidnap (with intent to extort)

7.2.45.                 Concealment, Taking, or Removal of a Minor Child from Custodian or from Person Entitled to Visitation in Violation of a Court Order with the Intent to Deprive Another Person of Lawful Custody or Visitation Rights

7.2.46.                 Abduction of a Child Near a School

7.2.47.                 Unlawful Restraint

7.2.48.                 Purchase of a Child

7.2.49.                 Sale of a Child

7.2.50.                 Battery on a School Employee (including lesser offenses)

7.2.51.                 Battery on a School Employee

7.2.52.                 Assault of a School Employee

7.2.53.                 Battery of an Athletic Official (including lesser offenses)

7.2.54.                 Battery of an Athletic Official

7.2.55.                 Assault of an Athletic Official

7.2.56.                 Injury to Passenger by Person in Charge of Public Conveyance or Boat

7.2.57.                 Malicious Assault of a Driver, Motorman, Conductor, Captain, Pilot or other Person in Charge of a Vehicle Used for Public Conveyance (including lesser offenses)

Human Trafficking

7.2.58.                 Human Trafficking

Domestic Offenses

7.2.59.                 Domestic Battery          Domestic Battery (effective June 29, 2017)         Domestic Battery (pre-June 29, 2017)

7.2.60.                 Domestic Assault         Domestic Assault (effective June 29, 2017)        Domestic Assault (pre-June 29, 2017)

7.2.61.                 Second Offense Domestic Violence (with Domestic Battery as lesser included offense)          (effective June 29, 2017)          (pre-June 29, 2017)

7.2.62.                 Third Offense Domestic Violence (with Domestic Battery as lesser included offense)          (effective June 29, 2017)         (pre-June 29, 2017)

7.2.63.                 Third Offense Domestic Violence (with Domestic Assault as lesser included offense)

7.2.64.                 Neglect of an Incapacitated Adult By a Caregiver

7.2.65.                 Abuse of an Incapacitated Adult By a Caregiver

7.2.66.                 Intentional and Malicious Abuse or Neglect of an Incapacitated Adult by a Caregiver Causing Bodily Injury

7.2.67.                 Intentional and Malicious Abuse or Neglect of an Incapacitated Adult by a Caregiver Causing Serious Bodily Injury

7.2.68.                 Intentional and Malicious Neglect of an Incapacitated Adult by a Caregiver causing Death

7.2.69.                 Caregiver Knowingly Allowing Another to Intentionally or Maliciously Neglect an Incapacitated Adult Causing Death

7.2.70.                 Intentional and Malicious Abuse of an Incapacitated Adult by a Caregiver Causing Death

7.2.71.                 Caregiver Causing Death by Knowingly Allowing Another to Intentionally or Maliciously Abuse an Incapacitated Adult

7.2.72.                 Financial Exploitation of an Elderly Person, Protected Person, or Incapacitated Adult

7.3.       Sexual Offenses

7.3.1.                     First Degree Sexual Assault

7.3.2.                     First Degree Sexual Assault (forcible compulsion)

7.3.3.                     First Degree Sexual Assault (By Infliction of Serious Bodily Injury or Use of Deadly Weapon) (Lack of Consent Based upon Incapacity to Consent)

7.3.4.                     Definition of “Sexual Intrusion”

7.3.5.                     Definition of “Sexual Intercourse”

7.3.6.                     Definition of “Serious Bodily Injury”

7.3.7.                     Definition of “Deadly Weapon”

7.3.8.                     First Degree Sexual Assault (based on difference in age)

7.3.9.                     Second Degree Sexual Assault (By Forcible Compulsion)

7.3.10.                 Second Degree Sexual Assault (Physically Helpless Victim)

7.3.11.                 Third Degree Sexual Assault (“Mentally Defective” or “Mentally Incapacitated”)

7.3.12.                 Definitions of “Mentally Defective” or “Mentally Incapacitated”

7.3.13.                 Third Degree Sexual Assault (Based on Age Difference)

7.3.14.                 First Degree Sexual Abuse (Lack of Consent Resulting from Forcible Compulsion)

7.3.15.                 First Degree Sexual Abuse (“Physically Helpless Victim”)

7.3.16.                 Definition of “Sexual Contact”

7.3.17.                 First Degree Sexual Abuse (Based upon Difference in Age)

7.3.18.                 Second Degree Sexual Abuse

7.3.19.                 Affirmative Defense Based on Lack of Knowledge

7.3.20.                 Third Degree Sexual Abuse

7.3.21.                 Incest

7.3.22.                 Sexual Abuse by a Parent, Guardian, or Custodian

7.3.23.                 Failure to Register as a Sexual Offender

7.3.24.                 Distribution and Display to a Minor of Obscene Matter

7.3.25.                 Employment or Use of Minor to Produce Obscene Matter or to Assist in Doing Sexually Explicit Conduct

7.3.26.                 Use of Obscene Matter with Intent to Seduce a Minor

7.4.      Drug Offenses

7.4.1.                     Possession of a Controlled Substance

7.4.2.                     Constructive Possession

7.4.3.                     Possession with Intent to Deliver a Controlled Substance

7.4.4.                     Possession with Intent to Deliver a Counterfeit Substance

7.4.5.                     Possession with Intent to Deliver an Imitation Controlled Substance

7.4.6.                     Delivery of a Controlled Substance

7.4.7.                     Delivery of a Counterfeit Substance

7.4.8.                     Delivery of an Imitation Controlled Substance

7.4.9.                     Definition of “Counterfeit Substance”

7.4.10.                 Definition of “Imitation Controlled Substance”

7.4.11.                 Manufacturing a Controlled Substance

7.4.12.                 Manufacturing a Controlled Substance—Definition of “Manufacture”

7.4.13.                 Manufacturing a Controlled Substance—Definition of “Knowingly”

7.4.14.                 Operating or Attempting to Operate Clandestine Drug Laboratories

7.4.15.                 Creating a Counterfeit Substance

7.4.16.                 Creating an Imitation Controlled Substance

7.5.      Crimes against Property


7.5.1.                     First Degree Arson

7.5.2.                     Second Degree Arson

7.5.3.                     Third Degree Arson

7.5.4.                     Fourth Degree Arson

7.5.5.                     Fourth Degree Arson (Placing of Materials or Explosives)

7.5.6.                     Burning or Attempting to Burn Insured Property

7.5.7.                     Setting Fire on Lands

7.5.8.                     Causing Bodily Injury During an Arson Related Crime

7.5.9.                     Arson Causing Serious Bodily Injury


7.5.10.                 Nighttime Burglary

7.5.11.                 Daytime Burglary

Breaking and Entering

7.5.12.                 Entering Without Breaking a Dwelling House

7.5.13.                 Entry of [a Building other than a Dwelling] Railroad, Traction, or Motorcar] [Steamboat or Other Vessel]

7.5.14.                 Entry of an Automobile, Motorcar, or Bus


7.5.15.                 Grand Larceny

7.5.16.                 Petit Larceny

7.5.17.                 Larceny of Bank Notes, Checks, Writings of Value, and Book Accounts

7.5.18.                 Receiving or Transferring Stolen Goods

7.5.19.                 Bringing Into This State, Receiving or Disposing of Property Stolen in Another State

7.5.20.                 Embezzlement

7.5.21.                 Embezzlement by Misuse of Power of Attorney or Other Fiduciary Relationship

7.5.22.                 Embezzlement by Carrier or Other Person

7.5.23.                 Falsifying Accounts

7.5.24.                 Possession or Use of Automated Sales Suppression Device

7.5.25.                 Destroying or Concealing Will

7.5.26.                 Embezzlement by a Fiduciary

7.5.27.                 Obtaining Money, Property and Services by False Pretenses, Token, or Representation

7.5.28.                 Obtaining Money, Property and Services by False Pretenses, Token, or Representation – on Credit

7.5.29.                 Disposing of Property to Defraud Creditors

7.5.30.                 Theft of Services

7.5.31.                 Attempted or Fraudulent Use of Credit Cards

7.5.32.                 Use of Telephone or Telegraph Facilities with the Intent to Avoid Paying Therefor

7.5.33.                 Forgery of a Credit Card

7.5.34.                 Traffic in Counterfeit Credit Cards

7.5.35.                 Possession of Illegal Credit Card Making Equipment

7.5.36.                 Possession of a Counterfeit Credit Card

7.5.37.                 Making, Selling, Possessing, Transferring or Advertising for Sale a Device or Plans for a Device Designed to Obtain or Use Telephone or Telegraph Service or Facilities by False or Fraudulent Means

7.5.38.                 Intercepting or Monitoring Customer Telephone Calls

7.5.39.                 Fraudulent Schemes

7.5.40.                 Casting Away, Destroying or Interfering with Floating Craft.

7.5.41.                 Casting Away, Destroying or Interfering with Floating Material


7.5.42.                 Malicious Killing of an Animal—Felony

7.5.43.                 Malicious Killing of an Animal—Misdemeanor

Damage to Railroad Property 

7.5.44.                 Willfully [Damaging] [Attempting to Damage] Railroad Property – Felony


7.5.45.                 Taking Identity of Another Person (Identity Theft)

7.5.46.                 Scanning Device Fraud

7.5.47.                 Reencoder Fraud

7.5.48.                 Shoplifting

7.5.49.                 Computer Fraud

7.5.50.                 Unauthorized Possession of Computer Data or Programs—Felony

7.5.51.                 Alteration, Destruction, etc., of Computer Equipment (Felony)

7.5.52.                 Fraud and Related Activity in Connection with Access Devices

7.5.53.                 Endangering Public Safety


7.5.54.                 Illegal Possession of Destructive Devices, Explosive Materials, or Incendiary Devices

7.5.55.                 Criminal Use of Destructive Device, Explosive Material, or Incendiary Device

7.5.56.                 Theft of Explosive Material from Storage Magazines or Buildings

7.5.57.                 Receipt, Possession, Storage, Sale, or Transportation of Stolen Explosive Material

7.5.58.                 Wanton Endangerment Involving Destructive Devices, Explosive Materials, or Incendiary Devices

8.  Defenses 

  8.1              Alibi

  8.2              Insanity (Test of Responsibility for Act)

  8.3              Insanity (Burden of Proof)

  8.4              Diminished Capacity

  8.5              Intoxication and Drug Use (No Weapon)

  8.6              Intoxication and Drug Use (With Use of Weapon)

  8.7              Unconsciousness (Automatism)

  8.8              Accident

  8.9              Self-Defense (General)

  8.10            Self-Defense (Home Intrusion, Occupant Defendant and Non-Occupant Victim)

  8.11            Self-Defense (Home Intrusion, Occupant Defendant and Occupant Victim)

  8.12            Duress, Compulsion, and Coercion

  8.13            Bona Fide Claim of Right (as to Robbery and Larceny)


9   Driving Under the Influence    [Reserved]


10 Workers’ Compensation           [Reserved]